(written from a Production point of view)
Star Trek: Phase II, also known by its official title Star Trek II (not to be confused with the earlier 1975-1976 revitalization attempts bearing the same title), was planned to be the first live-action spin-off television series of Star Trek: The Original Series. While ultimately not realized, it did serve, in more ways than one, as the starting point for its immediate successor Star Trek: The Motion Picture.
In 1977, Paramount Pictures President Barry Diller began working on the idea of launching a new, fourth television network, officially announced on 10 June 1977 as "Paramount Television Service" (PTVS). Following the rapid growth of Star Trek fandom, and a general growing interest in science fiction programming, Diller, who had just pulled the plug on the Star Trek: Planet of the Titans movie project, revived the property by drawing up plans to launch a new Star Trek television series as the network's flagship program, covering a second five-year mission. Having been passed over for Planet of the Titans, Gene Roddenberry was brought back to serve as writer and executive producer for the new series. The Enterprise was to be refit, and new characters were to be introduced. By August, construction on the sets had begun, and the Star Trek II Writer's/Director's Guide was published on 12 August 1977, with the premiere expected in spring of 1978.
Unfortunately, with pre-production in full swing and filming of the feature-length pilot, "In Thy Image" scheduled to begin on 28 November 1977, the network deal already fell through in late July 1977 as Gulf+Western head, Charles Bluhdorn, thought the project would lose too much money due to lack of advertiser interest (though the studio did contribute programming to the syndicated programming service Operation Prime Time, and used the intended PTVS logo for some OPT programs, and, with a new beginning added on, as a logo for their home video division). Something of a pet project of Bluhdorn, who had become enamored with Star Trek due to the unexpected success of The Original Series in syndication, he allowed subsidiary Paramount to continue working on the pilot in order to recoup the costs already underwritten as it was furthest in development, while scrapping every other production concept for the abandoned network, including George Pal's proposed War of the Worlds television series, based on his classic 1953 Paramount film of the same title, that was to serve as back-up for Phase II. However, the Star Trek project was now to be limited to a medium-sized stand-alone television film only. Yet, influenced by the huge success of Star Wars, which studio executives had at first thought to be a fluke, the decision was made on 21 October 1977 to upgrade the project to a full-fledged major theatrical feature, which quickly became known as Star Trek: The Motion Picture. (Star Trek Phase II: The Lost Series, pp. 21-22, 34, 49, 69; Star Trek Movie Memories, pp. 59, 77-78)
Several scripts already completed were later used as episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation. In fact, many of the series concepts from Phase II became the basis of The Next Generation, such as the "lost love" relationship between new first officer Decker and Ilia, which led to similar scenes in TNG's first season between Riker and Troi.
In 1997, the reference book Star Trek Phase II: The Lost Series, written by Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens, was published, containing the original scripts for "In Thy Image" and "The Child", and synopses of the original story treatments for the other commissioned stories.
In 2007, in the It's A Wrap! sale and auction, an assortment of Phase II costumes were auctioned off. A large portion of these costumes were purchased by James Cawley for the fan-made series Star Trek: New Voyages (which has since been re-named Star Trek: Phase II). Another costume which was sold off on IAW was previously used in the television series Mork & Mindy.  An olive-colored costume from the series was included in the displays at Star Trek: The Exhibition, in Blackpool.
The refit of the original Enterprise formed an integral part of the plot of "In Thy Image". Originally, designer Ralph McQuarrie – best known to the public for his production designs for the Star Wars films – was invited to England to work under Ken Adam to help develop the designs for the Star Trek: Planet of the Titans movie project, ultimately abandoned to make way for Phase II, the television series.
Their Enterprise design, however, was abandoned, and Gene Roddenberry asked Original Series veteran Matt Jefferies, who only agreed to work on Phase II on a temporary basis (and who had actually already worked on PTVS's The War of the Worlds back-up production), to update the famous starship to reflect the refit that the ship had undergone. Jefferies' redesign changed the engine nacelles from tubes to thin, flat-sided modules, and tapered their supports. He also added the distinctive photon torpedo ports on the saucer connector. "Basically," Jefferies said, "what I did to it was change the power units, and make a slight change in the struts that supported them. I gave the main hull a taper, then I went flat-sided and thin with the power units, rather than keeping the cylindrical shape. Trying to work out the logic of the refit, I knew a lot of the equipment inside would change, but I didn't see that there would be any need to change the exterior of the saucer. Certainly, though, the engines would be a primary thing to change. Part of the theory of the ship's design in the first place was that we didn't know what these powerful things were or how devastating it would be if anything went awry, so that's why we kept them away from the crew. And that meant they could be easily changed if you had to replace one." After Jefferies had to return to his regular job, Mike Minor and Joe Jennings continued to refine Jefferies' redesign up to the point where detailed construction plans for the filming model could be drawn up. (Star Trek Phase II: The Lost Series, pp. 26-27)
Unlike the first redesign of the Enterprise, Jefferies' new version was built this time by Don Loos, supervised by Brick Price of Brick Price Movie Miniatures, to whom Magicam, Inc, the company contracted at the start of September 1977 to provide all the visual effects (VFX) for the upcoming television project, had subcontracted the construction of the "hero" model. (Starlog, issue 27, p. 26) But when Paramount abandoned its plans to create a fourth television network and subsequently began in December 1977 transforming the pilot episode "In Thy Image" of the third Star Trek series into the first movie, that the six-foot Enterprise model, along with other Phase II studio models Magicam had already built or was in the process of building, were scrapped as a new art director – Richard Taylor of Robert Abel & Associates, the company contracted the subsequent month to do the VFX for the feature film – was brought in and who assigned Andrew Probert to do a second (co-)redesign with him of the ship, essentially keeping with Jefferies' new lines, while adding the extensive detail that was necessary for motion picture big screen requirements. (Star Trek: Creating the Enterprise, p. 46) Magicam, a Paramount subsidiary, was however retained to rebuild most of the studio models for the feature film, including the new, larger eight-foot refit-Enterprise studio model.
Aside from the hero ship itself, Jefferies also worked on the redesign of its shuttlecraft, using the Leif Ericson shuttlecraft – itself resulting from his more aerodynamic initial designs for the Original Series' Class F shuttlecraft – as starting point. Construction plans for a full scale mock-up of his redesign were actually drawn up for the Phase II production, which came to naught however, when the upgrade to a motion picture occurred and where a radically different shuttle was featured, designed by Andrew Probert. For the occasion of the 1997 The Lost Series book publication, John Eaves created retrospective color concept art of the shuttle based on the construction plans, both of which featured in the color insert of the book. Incidentally, Jefferies' original 1968 design for the Leif Ericson was repurposed as the "hyperspace carrier Pegasus", the hero ship for George Pal's proposed War of the Worlds television series, in 1975. (Star Trek Movie Memories, 1995, p. 59; ) Concept drawings of the Ericson's shuttlecraft, repurposed by Jefferies for intended use in Phase II, were also used in pitch reels for the series. 
Mike Minor's designs for the interior sets for the new Star Trek series are clearly an evolutionary step between the original series and The Motion Picture. The bridge set built for Phase II survived almost intact, though partially redesigned, to the film, while the transporter room was essentially a recreation of the original set with more streamlined console and new wall displays.
Other areas that received upgrade were the recreation deck and sickbay. On Minor's drawings, crew members can be seen playing three-dimensional chess and some kind of anti-gravitational game in the ship's recreation room, while others engage in intimate conversation.
Several fans were consulted for props and set pieces for Phase II, one being NASA Engineer and Shuttle Manager Roger D. Manley of Huntsville, Alabama. Manley played a huge part in adding factual descriptions of space travel and propulsion systems that was used in the later series.
- For a more detailed breakdown of the production history, please see: Star Trek: The Motion Picture production history
The first thirteen episodes
Work on developing installments of Phase II began. Alan Dean Foster noted, "A number of writers were called in to submit treatments for hour-long episodes." (The Fifty-Year Mission: The First 25 Years, p. 321)
The Lost Series (p.235) states "With an initial order for a two-hour pilot and thirteen episodes, Phase II quickly earned a reputation as one of the toughest shows to sell in Hollywood. Unlike most other series starting their first season, Phase II had the added complication of being a continuation of an earlier series, of which seventy-nine stories had already been told – 101 including the animated episodes."
As story editor, Jon Povill "had the responsibility of listening to literally hundreds of pitches from a stream of writers, to select those stories he felt were worthy of being considered by the producers." (Star Trek Phase II: The Lost Series, p. 235) Story work on potential episodes continued even after it was announced that the series would be aborted in favor of a theatrically released feature film. "As I was under contract as story editor, I continued working with writers and bringing in commissioned scripts until my contract ran out," said Povill, "even though we were told that they were going to feature sometime in the middle of my story-editor tenure." (The Fifty-Year Mission: The First 25 Years, pp. 331-332) Two of the first thirteen stories were rewritten to appear as episodes of The Next Generation – becoming "The Child" (by Jaron Summers & Jon Povill, and Maurice Hurley) and "Devil's Due" (by Philip LaZebnik, story by Philip LaZebnik and William Douglas Lansford) in the second and fourth seasons of TNG, respectively.
"In Thy Image"
"Tomorrow and the Stars"
Written by Larry Alexander, "Tomorrow and the Stars" was a time-travel story that was reminiscent of "The City on the Edge of Forever", with Kirk falling in love with a woman on Earth at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor. However, this time, Kirk's passion was for a married woman, giving the romantic angle of the story a slightly edgier approach. At the start of the tale, the Enterprise returned to Earth after a devastating Klingon attack. When Kirk beamed down to Earth, a transporter malfunction turned him essentially see-through and transported him back in time to Pearl Harbor. There, Kirk faced a similar dilemma of knowing he must not take action to save the lives of thousands of people – including the woman he loved – or he would forever alter history.
The writing of the script for "Tomorrow and the Stars" began when Gene Roddenberry gave Larry Alexander a copy of "The Apartment", an undeveloped story Roddenberry had written for the aborted TV series Genesis II. It was Roddenberry's idea that Kirk would travel back to Earth's past; Roddenberry also selected Pearl Harbor as the time and place. "It seemed a very obvious choice," Alexander observed. He was pleased, though, that setting the episode in Pearl Harbor would allow for the inclusion of footage from various relevant war films. On the other hand, Alexander was disappointed that the setting of the story allowed for very little historical irony in the script. He therefore didn't want the responsibility of writing it. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 101)
An unrevised final draft of "Tomorrow and the Stars" was issued on 18 January 1978. In that script, Kirk responded to the transporter malfunction by crying out, "Xon! What have you done with me??" That line was an attempt to allude to Kirk's bitterness that Xon wasn't Spock. Larry Alexander felt similar resentment over the fact that he wasn't able to write for Spock in the script, although he did consider Xon to be a Spock substitute "from a character point-of-view." Given his irritation with not being allowed to write for Spock himself, Alexander thought devising the line "seemed the 'logical' thing to do." (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 101)
"The Child" was written by Jaron Summers and Jon Povill. In the story, Lieutenant Ilia was mysteriously impregnated, and, within days, gave birth to a baby girl, Irska, who appeared to be fully Deltan. A curious alien lifeform wished to study the crew, but her presence threatened the ship.
This plot was likely based on "Infection", one of multiple suggested story ideas proffered by Gene Roddenberry in his 1964 series proposal "Star Trek is...". Jon Povill recalled, "In one of the [series' story] meetings, a writer named Jaron Summers pitched a story about space eggs that we were going to reject, but I suggested it could be reworked. Jaron agreed to have me work on it with him; and from that came our draft of 'The Child'." (Star Trek Phase II: The Lost Series, pp. 2-3) Povill was tasked with writing "The Child" in one week, as a condition of becoming story editor on Phase II. "I had Jaron Summers do a first draft and then I had to do a pretty complete rewrite," Povill recalled. "It had to get into shape for shooting, and the way that script came out would determine whether or not I could be the story editor." The teleplay Povill wrote was sufficiently satisfactory that he got the job. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 100) An unrevised final draft script of "The Child" was issued on 9 January 1978.
When this premise was ultimately used for TNG: "The Child", Ilia's role was allocated to Deanna Troi. Remarked Jon Povill, "Perhaps this is just writer's ego, but I believe the version of 'The Child' that Jaron and I wrote is far superior to the one that ultimately emerged on Star Trek: The Next Generation." (Star Trek Phase II: The Lost Series, p. 3) The original Phase II version of the story has been produced as an episode of the Phase II fan-film series, with Povill himself directing.
Written by Theodore Sturgeon, "Cassandra" was about a clumsy yeoman and a tiny, trouble-causing creature, intended to have joined the ranks among such comedy episodes as "The Trouble with Tribbles" and "A Piece of the Action".
- For the main article, see Kitumba.
Written by John Meredyth Lucas, this two-part episode provided a glimpse at an alternate Klingon Empire, a culture that had never been examined in detail in The Original Series. The "Kitumba" two-parter featured a complex plot, cloak-and-dagger action, and political maneuverings. Although the Klingon culture later developed along substantially different lines in The Next Generation, the "Kitumba" scripts contained many of the elements that later showed up in TNG episodes involving Klingon and Romulan politics. Like "The Child", "Kitumba" was made into an episode of the Phase II fan-film series.
"Practice in Waking"
Written by Richard Bach, "Practice in Waking" anticipated The Next Generation's penchant for placing stories in virtual-reality recreations of historical settings, though here the mechanism was directed dreaming, and not the holodeck.
In this tale, the Enterprise found a sleeper ship with only one passenger; upon beaming over to investigate, Decker, Scotty and Sulu discovered a woman in suspended animation. Scotty inadvertently touched a control panel and the three officers collapsed to the deck, only to reawaken in ancient Scotland without any memory of their lives aboard the starship. They met the same woman and protected her from mobs who accused her of being a witch. On the Enterprise, McCoy determined that the landing party's life signs were becoming progressively weaker. His prognosis was that the longer the trio remained in their dreaming state, the closer they came to dying, so Kirk and his crew had to somehow awaken them before they drifted off into final sleep.
The staff of Phase II expected this narrative would be extremely well received, owing to the fact that Richard Bach had written a couple of best-selling novels in the 1970s. Harold Livingston, for example, noted at the time, "His story should make one hell of an episode." "Practice in Waking" never made it to script form, but was one of the most popular story ideas among the Phase II staff. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 100) Jon Povill enthused, "Richard Bach's 'Practice in Waking' surely would have been a classic." (Star Trek Phase II: The Lost Series, p. 3)
Written by David Ambrose, "Deadlock" (which had the working title "All Done with Mirrors") built a portrait of a Starfleet gone mad – practicing mind-control techniques on its personnel, lying to them, and experimenting upon them by altering their perceptions of reality. However, there was another explanation for what Kirk and his crew experienced, leading to a scene in which Kirk defended Humanity to a group of aliens.
An earlier story treatment that was written by David Ambrose and was called "All Done with Mirrors" had the same story as "Deadlock" but a different conclusion. Instead of Starfleet personnel turning out to actually be the aliens in disguise, that early version of the story featured faux Starfleet officers who were part of an underground organization of "dedicated fanatics" who wanted to overthrow the Federation and had pledged to sacrifice their own lives for the cause. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 102)
Harold Livingston expected "Deadlock" would be "an extremely exciting story." (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 102) An unrevised final draft script of "Deadlock" was dated 20 January 1978.
"The Savage Syndrome"
Written by Margaret Armen and Alfred Harris, "The Savage Syndrome" featured a technology that unleashed dark urges repressed in Humans. Originally, Armen and Harris pitched the story to Gene Roddenberry, who approved of it because, in Armen's words, "he was looking for something different." (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 100) An unrevised final draft script of "The Savage Syndrome" was issued on 27 December 1977.
"Are Unheard Melodies Sweet?"
Written by Worley Thorne, "Are Unheard Melodies Sweet?" (aka "Home" and "Id's Delight") called for nudity and suggestive situations that probably would not have been filmed, let alone allowed to air. Yet, the story was a standard Star Trek adventure, with the Enterprise once again being trapped in a failing orbit without dilithium, while an alien race attempted to capture the crew. By the time of The Next Generation, damaged or missing dilithium was recognized as an overused plot element, and the bible for that series specifically stated that the new Enterprise's dilithium could easily be replaced. Regarding "Are Unheard Melodies Sweet?", Thorne noted, "This was an opportunity to do something I had always wanted to do," referring to a long-held desire to work on Star Trek. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 103)
In its Phase II format, "Devil's Due" was written by William Douglas Lansford. In the story, the Enterprise made first contact with the planet Neuterra, just as a mythical creature, who had sold the planet in exchange for peace millennia earlier, appeared. In Jon Povill's opinion, this story could "work very well. It had all the elements necessary for a very exciting, involving episode." Harold Livingston likened the plot to "The Devil and Daniel Webster", then went on to say, "The story has been developed to a point where we all feel it will be a most exciting Star Trek." (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 102) The original script of "Devil's Due" was issued in 1978.
"Lord Bobby's Obsession"
"Lord Bobby's Obsession" was written by Shimon Wincelberg. In the narrative, the Enterprise came across a derelict Klingon cruiser with one lifeform aboard: one Lord Bobby from Earth's 18th century. A step outline of "Lord Bobby's Obsession" was written, a revised draft of which was issued on 4 November 1977.
"To Attain the All"
"To Attain the All" was written by Norman Spinrad. In the story, the Enterprise became caught in a solar system-sized logic game where the prize was attaining "the All," a huge repository of knowledge. Spinrad commented, "It was about the crew of the Enterprise somehow becoming a hive mind, due to contact with some alien presence." (The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 144) Elements from this story are similar to such episodes as TNG: "The Last Outpost" and "Contagion". Another similar story is TOS: "Return to Tomorrow", as "To Attain the All" also involved the Enterprise crew discovering a race of disembodied aliens who had highly powerful mental powers but who tried to occupy the bodies of the crew.
"The War to End All Wars"
Written by Arthur Bernard Lewis, "The War to End All Wars" was derived from a discarded script treatment about warring androids on the planet Shadir ("A War to End Wars" by Richard Bach). In the story, Kirk rescued a female android, Yra, whose planet's successful philosophy of "peace through war" had been corrupted by a humanoid leader named Plateous III.
There were several episodes that were devised for Star Trek: Phase II but were neither commissioned nor produced. For instance, Margaret Armen and Alf Harris pitched three stories to Gene Roddenberry, despite only "The Savage Syndrome" ultimately being selected. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 100) Likewise, prior to working on "In Thy Image", Alan Dean Foster pitched three story concepts, neither of which was accepted for the series. (The Fifty-Year Mission: The First 25 Years, p. 321)
"Ghost Story" was a story outline by Larry Alexander.  The plot was a precursor of "Tomorrow and the Stars" (also by Alexander) and was heavily influenced by the science fiction film Forbidden Planet.
In "Ghost Story", Kirk and a landing party arrived on a planet lying in ruins. They discovered highly advanced technology on the planet, but no sign of a living civilization. Kirk entered a science lab and was projected backwards in time. In the past, he encountered a pair of scientists who had developed a machine to scan the mind, though it operated quite differently on a Human. Hooked up to Kirk's mind, the device caused him extreme agony. Demons from within his mind, the Id, materialized and destroyed all life on the planet, resulting in the destruction witnessed at the beginning of the tale.
Larry Alexander was careful to point out, in the course of the narrative, that Kirk wasn't technically responsible for the planet's destruction. "He asked them not to do it. I was very strict about that," the writer clarified. "He didn't volunteer to do this, and when he realized what was going on, he did everything possible to stop it. All of that, I think, holds up on that basis. I was thinking very strictly about what happened to Kirk in many episodes where things didn't turn out the way he hoped." One such example was Kirk's inability to prevent the death of Edith Keeler at the end of "The City on the Edge of Forever". "It's like that when the people of this planet find that it's his demons which have destroyed their world, not theirs," the writer added. "It makes it that much more ironic."
Indeed, Larry Alexander was very proud of "Ghost Story", commenting, "I thought it was a wonderful story idea to have Captain Kirk responsible for the death of a planet, and it's the one step beyond Forbidden Planet that had never been dealt with. It makes it much more Human and, to me, much more of an interesting irony. That's the kind of material I think is interesting and I was shocked when Gene Roddenberry said he didn't want to go with it." Whereas Roddenberry opted for Alexander to instead write "Tomorrow and the Stars", Alexander was more appreciative of the irony in "Ghost Story" than what little irony could be written into a tale about Kirk going back in time to Pearl Harbor. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 101)
"Merlin's Magic" was a story outline by Steve Kelly. 
"Paradise Lost" was a story outline by Arthur Heinemann. 
"The Prisoner" was a story treatment written by James Menzies.  In the story, Albert Einstein suddenly appeared on the Enterprise's main viewscreen, startling the bridge officers. He appealed for their help, and explained that he and many other scientists from Earth had been abducted and kept alive by a "storage battery" on an alien planet. Kirk was skeptical that he was talking with the real Einstein, but his curiosity was piqued, so he ordered the Enterprise to the planet where, purportedly, Einstein was. While the ship orbited that world, six scientists from Earth's past (circa the 20th century) appeared in the transporter room. Xon quickly discerned that they were not actually living beings, but rather highly realistic illusions.
Realizing the trap they had been caught in, Kirk ordered the Enterprise to break orbit, though that turned out to be impossible. He himself then beamed down to the planet's surface, where he encountered Logos, an alien who was the culprit behind the charade. His goal was to assume all Human life, starting with Kirk and his crew. Logos felt this was only fair, given the extreme savageness of the Human race, constantly living under the threat of nuclear annihilation. Kirk argued that the Earth which Logos spoke of was ancient history, but the alien refused to accept that, insisting that man would never change. A battle of wills ensued between Logos and the Enterprise crew, with the future of Humanity at stake. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 101)
The original cast returned to reprise their roles (with the notable exception of Leonard Nimoy), alongside several new characters: Xon (replacing Spock as science officer), navigator Ilia, and first officer Willard "Will" Decker.
James T. Kirk
William Shatner returned to Star Trek to reprise the role of Captain James T. Kirk. The writers/directors guide, written, among others, by Gene Roddenberry and Jon Povill between May and August of 1977, described Kirk as follows:
- "A shorthand sketch of Kirk might be "a space-age Captain Horatio Hornblower," constantly on trial with himself, a strong, complex personality.
- "With the Starship out of communication with Earth and Starfleet bases for long periods of time, a Starship captain has unusual broad powers over both the lives and welfare of his crew, as well as over Earth people and activities encountered during these voyages. He also has broad power as an Earth Ambassador may discover. Kirk feels these responsibilities strongly and is fully capable of letting the worry and frustration lead him into error.
- "He is also capable of fatigue and inclined to push himself beyond Human limits, then condemn himself because he is not superhuman. The crew respects him, some almost to the point of adoration. At the same time, no senior officer aboard is fearful of using his own intelligence in questioning Kirk's orders and can themselves be strongly articulate up to the point where Kirk signifies his decision has been made.
- "Kirk is a veteran of hundreds of planet landings and space emergencies. He has a broad and highly mature perspective on command, fellow crewmen, and even on alien life customs, however strange or repugnant they seem when reassessed against Earth standards.
- "On the other hand, don't play Kirk like the captain of an 1812 frigate in which nothing or no one moves without his command. The Enterprise crew is a finely-trained team, well able to anticipate information and action Kirk needs.
- "Aboard ship, Captain Kirk has only a few opportunities for anything approaching friendship. One exception is with ship's surgeon Dr. McCoy, who has a legitimate professional need to constantly be aware of the state of the Captain's mind and emotions. But on a "shore leave" away from the confines of self-imposed discipline, Jim Kirk is likely to play pretty hard, almost compulsively so. It is not impossible he will let this drag him at one time or another into an unwise romantic liaison which he will have great difficulty disentangling. He is, in short, a strong man forced by the requirements of his ship and career into the often lonely role of command, even lonelier because Starship command is the most difficult and demanding task of his century."
Leonard Nimoy was offered a role as Spock in only two of the projected thirteen episodes, an offer that he thought was insulting to both himself and the character of Spock. Once he had declined this offer, a new actor, David Gautreaux, was cast to fulfill the role of the Vulcan science officer aboard the Enterprise. Xon, however, did not make it into the final script of The Motion Picture due to Nimoy's return in the role of Spock. The actor made a cameo appearance as Commander Branch of Epsilon IX station.
Elements of the character of Xon, such as his search to understand Humans, were transferred later into TNG's character of Data. Also, the concept of a full-blooded Vulcan having to deal with "barbaric" Humans was explored with T'Pol aboard Enterprise NX-01.
The writers/directors guide, written, among others, by Gene Roddenberry and Jon Povill between May and August of 1977, described Xon as followed:
- "Can a twenty-two-year-old Vulcan on his first space voyage fill the shoes of the legendary Mr. Spock? Xon (pronounced Zahn) was selected by the Vulcan Science Academy to attempt exactly that. Kirk was stunned when his new science officer reported aboard and found him to be a little more than a boy. (Xon looks something like a young Michael York with pointed ears.) Kirk has assumed the replacement was someone near Spock's age. The reports he had read on Xon listed him as a prominent scientist and teacher.
- "The truth is that Xon is a genius, even by Vulcan standards. As we'll see in our episodes, he is as competent as Spock in all fields of science. He lacks knowledge, however, in one very important area – the Human equation. Unlike Spock, Xon is a full Vulcan. He had no Human mother to acquaint him with the Earth species; he has no Human half with which to feel and understand Human emotions.
- "Xon realizes that the reason that Spock performed so well in his tasks on board the Enterprise was that he was half Human and therefore could understand emotional Human nature. In order to perform as well as Spock, he knows he is going to have to eliminate his Vulcan revulsion at emotional displays. He is, in fact, going to have to reach down within himself and find the emotions that his society has repressed for thousands of years so that he will have some basis for fully understanding his Human associates.
- "What this means is: whereas Spock was engaged in a constant battle with himself to repress his emotions in order to be more Vulcan-like, Xon will be engaged in a constant struggle within himself to release his buried emotions to be more Human-like for the sake of doing a good job, his primary considerations. This will be at least as difficult for him as it was for Spock to maintain his stoic pose. Also, we'll get humor out of Xon trying to simulate laughter, anger, fear, and other Human feelings.
- "The new science officer accepted the Enterprise assignments with much trepidation. He has no doubt that he can competently handle the scientific aspects of his job, but he fears the crew might expect him to be a duplicate of Spock as well as a replacement. These fears have been realized and hanging over the early episodes. So also is the unsaid comment, "Mr. Spock never did it quite like that." Nor is Captain Kirk overly fair to Xon in the beginning. Spock's friendship was a deep, important thing to Kirk, and the Captain is now almost arbitrarily rejecting the possibility of a meaningful relationship with the young Vulcan. However, the more difficult Lieutenant Xon's situation, the more we'll like him and the more we'll want him to succeed in this difficult assignment.
- "As a full Vulcan, Xon is even stronger than Spock. He can endure lack of water and high temperatures for very long periods. All his senses are particularly keen. He has strong Vulcan mind-meld abilities.
- "The young Vulcan lieutenant is constantly shocked by Human behavior. In preparing for this assignment, he made himself quite an expert on Human behavior and history. And it is amusing to see him try to apply this knowledge too logically and too literally. Nothing he studied quite prepared him for the real thing. Although Xon tries hard to hide his surprise and discomfitures, the crew is aware that it exists. They often go out of their way to exaggerate their Human qualities, further distressing the young Vulcan. But this is not done in mean spirit and never in a situation where it will interfere with starship efficiency. We will suspect that life among Humans is causing Xon to begin to feel some emotions himself. On his planet this is, of course, grossest of sins and the young Vulcan makes every effort to hide any sign of this "weakness."
- "The science officer presides over a large console which is known as the "Library Computer Station." It is second in importance only to ship command and is located directly behind Captain's position."
Willard "Will" Decker was another of the new characters among the cast, supposed to fulfill the role of ship's first officer. The role had not been cast at the time of the series shutdown; Stephen Collins played the character in The Motion Picture. Much of what had been laid down for the character of Decker formed the basis for First Officer William "Will" Riker of The Next Generation, as is apparent from how the character is described in the writers/directors guide, written, among others, by Gene Roddenberry and Jon Povill between May and August of 1977.
- "In his youthful thirties, Decker is the ship's Executive Officer, second in command. Kirk sometimes calls or refers to him as "First", which is naval parlance for ship's "First Lieutenant," which would have been Decker's title in the days of sailing ships. Will Decker comes very near to worshiping Kirk and would literally rather die than fail him. The prime responsibility of a "First" is to provide his captain with the most efficient crew and vessel possible and Will Decker takes this responsibility seriously.
- "When not absorbed in his task of keeping the Enterprise at top fitness, Will Decker is a very humorous man. He particularly enjoys playing the "too perfect," soulless marionette of an officer. The joke can be confusing to others because Will can almost become that kind of officer when Kirk's welfare or the strategy of the ship is involved.
- "We can see that Jim Kirk is very much in the process of training the young commander for the responsibilities of Starship command someday. We will see that future captain begin to happen during this five-year mission.
- "In areas of logistics and organization, he has a keen and analytical mind, one upon which Kirk will rely heavily. He will command some landing parties and many decisions will be life-and-death choices.
- "Will's background is all service: his father, his father's father were Academy graduates, Starfleet officers of flag rank. Someday, surely, he will wear a star. Because of his heritage, and because he has been groomed since nearly birth for command. He has friends, but tends to protect his privacy while respecting others'. Between Kirk and Decker is a kind of father/son relationship that each cherishes."
The third new character to Star Trek came in the form of Lieutenant Ilia (pronounced "Il-ee-ah"), performed by Persis Khambatta. Gene Roddenberry's and Jon Povill's 1977 writers/directors guide described her as:
- "...a young female of Planet 114-Delta V, which has recently joined the Federation. The Deltan race is much older than Humans, with brains much more finely evolved in areas of art and mathematics. These abilities make her a superb navigator and her artistic abilities are evident in her sure, flowing precision at this task.
- "Her face is breathtakingly beautiful. But like all Deltans, she is completely hairless except for the eyes. Her smooth, slender bare head has the almost sensually quality of delicately contoured nudity, always hidden before in other women. It gives her a striking, almost "Egyptian" look, particularly when wearing a Deltan jewel-band head ornament.
- "Ilia's intelligence level is second only to the Science Officer, and she has also the esper abilities common on her planet. Unlike the mind-meld of Vulcans, it simply is the ability to sense images in other minds. Never words or emotions, only images... shapes, sizes, textures. On her planet, sexual foreplay consists largely of lovers placing images in each other's minds.
- "Just as Vulcans have a problem with emotions, Ilia has a problem which accompanies her aboard the starship. On 114-Delta V, almost everything in life is sex-oriented; it is a part of every friendship, every social engagement, every profession. It is simply the normal way to relate with others there. Since constant sex is not the pattern of Humans and others board this starship, Ilia has totally repressed this emotion drive and social pattern."
Certain characteristics of Lieutenant Ilia, such as her relationship to the young first officer and empathic abilities later formed the basis for the character of Counselor Deanna Troi of The Next Generation.
- "Senior Ship's Surgeon of the USS Enterprise, head of the Medical Department. As such, he is responsible for the health and physical welfare of the crew of the Enterprise. He also has broad medical science responsibilities in areas of space exploration.
- "As Senior Ship's Surgeon, "Bones" McCoy is the one man who can approach Captain Kirk on the most intimate personal levels relating to the Captain's physical, mental and emotional well being. Indeed, he has the absolute duty to constantly keep abreast of the Captain's condition and speak out openly to Kirk on this matter. McCoy is portrayed as something of a future-day H.L. Mencken, a very, very outspoken character, with more than a little cynical bite in his attitudes and observations of life. He has an acid wit which results in sometimes shocking statements – statements which, under close scrutiny, carry more than a grain of truth about medicine, man and society.
- "Of all the men aboard our starship, McCoy is the least military. He is filled with idiosyncrasies which fit the character and are his trademark. For example, he loathes the transporter and system of "beaming" personnel from the ship to planet surfaces, and loudly proclaims that he does not care to have his molecules scrambled and beamed around as if he were a radio message.
- "McCoy is highly practical in the old "general practitioner" sense, hates pills except when they are vitally needed, is not above believing that a little suffering is good for the soul and the maturity of the individual. He has a great fear that perfect medicine, psychotherapy and computers may rob humankind of his individuality and his divine right to wrestle a bit with life. He's a superb physician and surgeon – often seems to be treating the wrong ailment – but usually is proven right in the end.
- "Dr. McCoy is the oldest crew member aboard, and as such, subject to some ribbing. He was married once, something of a mystery that ended unhappily. He is a grandfather, but unhappily his starship duty has prevented him forming the relationship with his grandchildren he would have desired. His years provide him wisdom and experience, and offer an interesting – and sometimes poignant – counterpoint to the younger officers and crewmen.
- "Lieutenant Xon, like Spock before him, appears to regard McCoy as a bumbling country doctor, generally achieving cures through luck rather than science. But "Bones" McCoy, like most cynics, is a at heart a bleeding Humanist and the affectionate (and humorous) feud that was carried on between Spock and McCoy is continued between McCoy and Xon.
- "With the considerable difference, however, that McCoy feels the "feud" is a very private affair concerning himself and Xon – and McCoy has been known to severely chastise (in private) those crewmen and officers who have been guilty of unfairness to the young Vulcan in comparing his efforts to Spock's. If you accuse McCoy of protecting Xon, he would vehemently deny it."
- "...a rare mechanical capability many claim he can put an engine together with baling wire and glue... and make it run. He regards the USS Enterprise as his personal property and the Engineering Section as his private world where even Captain James Kirk is merely a privileged trespasser.
- "Engineering and spaceships are his life. His idea of a pleasant afternoon is tinkering in an Engineering Section of the vessel; he is totally unable to understand why any sane man would spend reading time on anything but technical manuals. He is strong-minded, strong-willed and not incapable of telling off even a Starfleet Captain who intrudes into what Scotty regards as his own private province and area of responsibilities.
- "Kirk understands his Engineering Officer's fierce love of his vessel and his engines, will take more "guff" off this officer than almost any other aboard the ship. Regarding him, Kirk has one rule: "If it doesn't run, take it to Scotty. If he can't fix it, it's irreparable.""
- "Rank of Lieutenant Commander, Communications Officer, played by attractive young actress Nichelle Nichols. Uhura was born in the African Confederacy. Quick and intelligent, she is a highly efficient officer. Her understanding of the ship's computer systems is second only to the Vulcan Science Officer, and expert in all ships systems relating to communications. Uhura is also a warm, highly feminine female off duty. She is a favorite in the Recreation Room during off duty hours, too, because she sings – old ballads as well as the newer space ballads – and she can do impersonations at the drop of a communicator."
- "Ship's helmsman, played by actor George Takei. Mixed Oriental in ancestry, a Lieutenant Commander, Japanese predominating, Sulu is very Occidental in speech and manner. In fact, his attitude toward Asians is that they seem to him rather "inscrutable." Sulu fancies himself more of an old-world "D'Artagnan" than anything else. He is a compulsive hobbyist; like all "collectors," he is forever giving his friends a thousand reasons why they, too, should take on the same hobby.
- "Although these bursts of enthusiasm make him something of a chatterbox, Sulu is a top officer and one of the most proficient helmsmen in the Starfleet Service. When the chips are down, he immediately becomes another character, a terse professional, whose every word and deed relate solely to the vessel and its safety. This pleasant and effective "dual personality" results never intrude on his job. He has never had to receive the same order from Kirk twice."
- "Formerly an ensign, the youngest officer aboard, Chekov is now a full lieutenant with years of space adventure behind him. He commands the security division of the USS Enterprise, and is responsible for matters of security and discipline both aboard the vessel and ashore. He is responsible also for the training of the men and women who make up his security teams. During action stations, his post is on the bridge at the damage control console. The Captain's safety is Lt. Chekov's responsibility, too, very much as the Captain's health is McCoy's concern."
Majel Barrett was to reprise her role of Christine Chapel on Phase II. Originally a nurse on the original Star Trek, she returned as a full doctor to serve as McCoy's associate. Gene Roddenberry's and Jon Povill's 1977 writers/directors guide described her as being:
- "...second in command of the ship's medical section, and McCoy seems to enjoy passing on to her every duty he finds too boring, irritating or annoying to do himself. Yet outside of Captain Kirk, she is probably McCoy's closest confidante. An expert in psychotherapy, she has unusual ability to teach patients how to use the healing power of their own bodies."
- "Played by a succession of young actresses, always lovely. One such character has been well-established, 'Yeoman Janice Rand,' played by the lovely Grace Lee Whitney. It is a tradition of Starfleet that yeomen are invariably female and serve ship commanders as combination of executive secretary-valet-military aide. It is a much sought-after post because of the experience gained and many yeomen go on to eventually become senior bridge officers and Starfleet captains. As in the case of all females aboard, they are treated co-equally with males of the same rank and the same level of efficient performance is expected. The yeoman often carries an over-the-shoulder case, the tricorder, which is an electronic recorder-camera-sensor combination, immediately available to the captain, should he be away from his command console."
Phase II would have featured Rand herself in "In Thy Image", and a Yeoman Jennifer York – an exo-linguist – in "Lord Bobby's Obsession", with the rank of yeoman also to have been mentioned in "Kitumba, Part I".
- Executive Producer/Creator
- Gene Roddenberry
- Secty/Assistant to G. Roddenberry
- Susan Sackett
- Robert Goodwin
- Harold Livingston
- Secty. to R. Goodwin
- Alisa Berton
- Secty. to H. Livingston
- Cheryl Blythe
- Director (Pilot)
- Robert Collins
- Story Editor
- Jon Povill
- Asst. to G. Roddenberry
- Bob Rosenbaum
- Secty. to B. Rosenbaum
- Ruth Carpenter
- Production Manager
- Bruce Fowler, Jr.
- Michael Schoenbrun
- Secty. to Prod. Mgrs.
- Susan Ellis
- Freeman Packard
- Unit Production Manager
- George Fenaja
- Bruce Logan
- Art Director
- Joe Jennings
- Assistant Art Director
- John Cartwright
- Concept Artist
- Lee Cole
- Set Decorator
- Lewis Splittsberger
- Jr. Set Designer
- Janet Stokes
- Production Illustrator
- Mike Minor
- Costume Designer
- William Ware Theiss
- Assistant Costume Designer
- Frances Harrison
- Kazuaki Yamamoto
- NASA Technical Consultant
- Jesco von Puttkamer
- Technical Advisor/Vessel Schematics
- Matt Jefferies
- Head of Casting
- Hoyt Bowers
- Casting Directors
- Pat Harris & Marcia Kleinman
- Casting Secretary
- Meg Liberman
- Post-Production Supervisor
- Paul Rabwin
- Studio Post-Production
- George Watters
- Asst. to G. Watters
- Gary Chandler
- Richard Winters
- Insurance Certificates
- Richard Miller
- Don Foster
- Construction Coordinator
- Buddy Arbuckle
- Property Master
- Bob Richards
- Brink Brydon
Uncredited production staff
Extensive though this might have seen, there were more than enough production staffers that went without credit, including,
- Gregory Jein – Magicam, Inc.: Model Maker
- Don Loos – Brick Price Movie Miniatures: Model Maker
- William Norton – Director of Photography: Screen Tests
- Brick Price – Brick Price Movie Miniatures: Supervising Model Maker
- Jim Rugg – Special Effects
- Mark Tanz – Special Effects
Uncredited production companies
- Magicam, Inc. – Visual Effects Company
- Brick Price Movie Miniatures – Sub-contracted/Models, miniatures and props
- The Making of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, March 1980 – Chapter 4: "The Almost (Again) Television Show"
- Trek: The Lost Years, December 1987
- Lost Voyages of Trek and The Next Generation, August 1992
- The Art of Star Trek, November 1995
- Star Trek: Phase II - The Making of the Lost Series, March 1997
- Star Trek Monthly issue 26, pp. 30-32
- Star Trek: Waypoint, Issue 6: "The Fear"
- Star Trek: The Official Starships Collection
- Bonus issue 8, January 2018
- Bonus issue 19, October 2019
- Phase II: The Lost Enterprise (Star Trek: The Motion Picture (The Director's Edition) DVD, disc 2, 2001)
- Star Trek: The Journey to the Silver Screen – Chapter 1: "The New Frontier: Resurrecting Star Trek" (Star Trek 50th Anniversary TV and Movie Collection Blu-ray set, bonus disc, 2016)
|Undeveloped Star Trek projects|
|Films: The God Thing • Star Trek: Planet of the Titans • Star Trek III • Star Trek: The First Adventure • Star Trek: IMAX • Star Trek: The Beginning • Star Trek 4|
|Series: Assignment: Earth • Star Trek: Phase II • Star Trek: Re-Boot the Universe • Star Trek: Federation • Star Trek: Final Frontier|
|Episodes: TOS • TAS • TNG • DS9 • VOY • ENT • DIS||Novels and reference books|