The temporal lobes were lateral parts of the brain.
In 2256, medical scans showed that the white matter tracts in Paul Stamets' medial temporal lobe had been restructured as a result of his navigating the spore drive. (DIS: "Into the Forest I Go")
On Omicron Theta, Doctor Noonian Soong experimented with scanning the synaptic patterns of the colonists' temporal lobes and programmed them into Data's neural nets. (TNG: "Silicon Avatar")
When Doctor Julian Bashir ran a full neurosynaptic comparison of the brains of Jadzia Dax and Miles O'Brien in 2369, he found the same pattern, the aphasia virus, in their temporal lobes. (DS9: "Babel")
In 2370, Beverly Crusher scanned Jean-Luc Picard's temporal lobe twice within a short space of time and detected a 13% increase in the acetylcholine of his hippocampus. This showed Picard had accumulated over two days' worth of memories in minutes. (TNG: "All Good Things...")
In 2371, Bareil Antos' left temporal lobe showed signs of massive synaptic failure after unwisely discussing the Bajoran-Cardassian Treaty with Winn Adami. (DS9: "Life Support")
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