(covers information from several alternate timelines)
Torture was the practice of inflicting extreme pain on a captive subject.
While the pain inflicted during torture was often physical in nature, it could also possess an emotional or mental character.
Torture (or the threat of torture) could be intended to:
- Serve as a disincentive to the subject against withholding information from the torturer
- Force the subject into an altered state of mind in which they were more likely to confess misdeeds or swear on lies, as a consequence of the autonomic elevation of neurotransmitter levels
- Intimidate the subject
- Induce someone responsible for the safety of the subject to provide information desired by the torturer
- Punish the subject for disobedience or unsuccessful escape from captivity
- Condition the subject to accept the torturer's authority without question
- Please the torturer, for example, sadism
- Test the reactions or limits of the subject
Torture could be directed not only to the subject tortured, but to persons forced to watch or whom the cruelty of the act is told for any purpose described above, as well as in order to force sacrifice.
Torture was considered by some to be useful during interrogations. However, Captain Jean-Luc Picard asserted to Gul Madred that "torture has never been a reliable means of extracting information. It is ultimately self-defeating as a means of control. One wonders it is still practiced." (TNG: "Chain of Command, Part II")
Acts of torture were in theory banned by the Seldonis IV Convention, however governments who were signatories to the treaty would often attempt to find ways around this restriction. The Cardassians were one such example, justifying their torture of Jean-Luc Picard in 2369 by claiming the treaty only applied to those acting on behalf of a treaty signatory, which Picard would not admit to doing. (TNG: "Chain of Command, Part II")
In 2259 of the alternate reality, Nyota Uhura assured James T. Kirk that a Klingon patrol would torture, question, and kill them and the other crew members who were inside their K'normian trading ship. (Star Trek Into Darkness)
Races known to sanction the use of torture included:
- Anarchists of Tilonus IV
Torture was common in the mirror universe. In 2371, Elim Garak would torture Terran slaves in an attempt to increase the amount of ore that they processed in Terok Nor's ore processing center. Doing so, along with bribes and executing unproductive slaves, failed to increase production enough to meet quotas set by the Klingon-Cardassian Alliance. Intendant Kira Nerys suggested randomly executing workers instead. (DS9: "Through the Looking Glass")
Officers of the Andorian Imperial Guard also tortured their prisoners and beat and kick them during their interrogations. In June of 2151, Commander Thy'lek Shran tortured Captain Jonathan Archer to get information about a Vulcan listening post at P'Jem from him. (ENT: "The Andorian Incident")
In August of 2151, Matthew Ryan and the crew of the ECS Fortunate held a Nausicaan as prisoner and tortured him during interrogations to get the frequencies of the Nausicaan ship shields from him. Ryan kicked the Nausicaan into his chest with his foot. (ENT: "Fortunate Son")
- "Broken Bow" - Klaang appears to have been tortured when Archer and Tucker rescue him from the Suliban helix
- "Shockwave, Part II" - T'Pol and Malcolm Reed are tortured by Silik
- "Anomaly" - An Osaarian is tortured by Archer
- "Azati Prime" - Archer is tortured by Dolim
- "Cold Station 12" - Doctor Lucas and his assistant are tortured by the Augments
- "Kir'Shara" - Soval is tortured by Shran
- "In a Mirror, Darkly" - Terev is tortured by Major Reed, Archer and Reed are tortured by Captain Forrest, the Tholian prisoner is tortured by Phlox
- Star Trek films:
- TNG: "Ensign Ro" - Ro Laren mentions that she had to watch her father being tortured by the Cardassians
- DS9: "Battle Lines" - Julian Bashir was eager to help the Ennis and Nol-Ennis to end the state of torture and reprogramming the artificial microbes so that they could die.
- DS9: "Duet" - Kira Nerys mentioned the murders and torture which happened at the Gallitep labor camp during the Occupation of Bajor.
- DS9: "The Wire" - Elim Garak explained that living on Deep Space 9 is torture for him.
- DS9: "For the Cause" - Tora Ziyal stated that Dukat informed her that his father was tortured and killed by Garak.