A tracking station was a stationary station that was equipped with a tracking system so as to provide the capability to detect or track something, such as a person or a starship.
In 1968, Blackjack stated that they were tracking Bluejay 4 and the UFO (aka USS Enterprise on RADAR in Earth's lower atmosphere. (TOS: "Tomorrow is Yesterday")
In 2153, Earth tracking station spotted the transport Arctic One leaving Earth orbit at warp 3.9. (ENT: "Regeneration")
In 2366, the tracking station of the Angosian penal colony Lunar V was damaged by the prisoner Roga Danar, who escaped in an Angosian police shuttle from the moon. (TNG: "The Hunted")
In 2379, an unknown source accessed information aboard the USS Enterprise-E. It was unclear what information were accessed but it was mostly basic stellar cartography, star charts, communications protocols, uplinks from colony tracking stations, and even not restricted material. (Star Trek Nemesis)