A translation algorithm was an algorithm within Federation Starfleet computers used to translate alien languages.

While trapped aboard the Nyrian biosphere vessel, Captain Janeway and Tuvok were unable to read information on the location of imprisoned USS Voyager personnel as it was written in the Nyrian language. However, since the Nyrians had downloaded Voyager's cultural database, Tuvok suggested that Janeway tap into the translation algorithm. Doing so enabled the officers to read the data. (VOY: "Displaced")

The translation algorithm may be a component of the universal translator. The formation of a translation matrix may also involve the translation algorithm in that the algorithm could be used to establish a translation matrix or in that it could rely on the matrix in order to function properly.
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