(covers information from several alternate timelines)
In an alternate timeline in which Germany invaded the United States of America, the Enterprise was destroyed prior to 1944. After seeing the mission patch on Jonathan Archer's Starfleet uniform, depicting the Enterprise NX-01, Alicia Travers assumed that he was a sailor who managed to escape the naval vessel before it sank. (ENT: "Storm Front")
|Pre-warp ships Enterprise|
|Sail: HMS Enterprize • Enterprise • USS Enterprise|
|Powered: USS Enterprise CV-6 • USS Enterprise CVN-65|
This was the historical World War II Yorktown-class aircraft carrier Enterprise, after which Gene Roddenberry named his fictional starship, USS Enterprise (NCC-1701). (The Making of Star Trek, p. 164) World War II veteran Roddenberry emphatically reaffirmed this himself in a later 1973 radio interview (approximately 9 minutes into the interview) regarding the renaming of his originally intended SS Yorktown to Enterprise, by stating that he was, "(..)particularly fascinated by the story of the Enterprise in WWII which had Midway really turn the tide of the whole war. And I always considered it a heroic ship, and decided to use the name."   Like its fictional counterpart, the historical Enterprise has become one of history's most celebrated vessels, being out of four carriers the only class survivor, and becoming the most decorated American vessel to serve in World War II, according to the Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 1, p. 245). The originally intended SS Yorktown incidentally was named after the historical USS Yorktown (CV-5), the class vessel and thus one of Enterprise's class sisters; unlike Enterprise however, she was lost in the Battle of Midway.
The real Enterprise (CV-6) was decommissioned in 1947, and scrapped in 1958.
Following the tradition set in Star Trek: The Motion Picture and Star Trek: The Next Generation, Archer's Enterprise NX-01 also had a display of the historical lineage of ships called Enterprise aboard in his ready room. In this case it was a series of four artistic prints comprising the frigate Enterprise, the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN-65), the space shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101), and Archer's own ship. These prints were made by John Eaves, who actually made a series of five. However due to space limitations on the wall, one had to be left out. The one chosen to be left out portrayed the USS Enterprise (CV-6). 
In the Star Trek heavy episode "The Bakersfield Expedition" of the popular, already heavily Star Trek referencing, sitcom The Big Bang Theory (S06E13, 2013), the "Enterprise Rent-A-Car" agency is mentioned in regard to Star Trek by one of the main characters. Founder Jack C. Taylor had named his company in 1969 for the ship he had served on in World War II, the USS Enterprise (CV-6). 
The Enterprise appears in the short story "World of Strangers" in Star Trek: Enterprise Logs.