Multiple realities
(covers information from several alternate timelines)

The following is a list of unnamed Federation starships in service during the 23rd century.

By history

Systems-wide failure

This unnamed starship experienced a systems-wide technological failure in 2287. (TNG: "Evolution")

This ship was only mentioned in dialogue.
The Star Trek Chronology (? ed., p. ?) speculates that the reference made by Data stating "there has not been a system-wide technological failure on a starship in seventy-nine years," may have been in reference to the failure of the transwarp drive aboard the USS Excelsior.

By assignment

Charlie's transport

Charlie's transport was a ship that suffered a crash landing on the planet Thasus circa 2252. Losing his parents in the crash, Charles Evans was the lone survivor. It was equipped with microtapes and enough food concentrates to last approximately a year, according to Spock.

When Doctor Leonard McCoy expressed doubt in 2266 that the ship's food supplies would have lasted fourteen years, Charlie claimed to have found food "growing around" on the planet`s surface after the ship's supply was exhausted, and that he learned to talk by listening and responding to the ship's memory banks. (TOS: "Charlie X")

This transport was only mentioned in dialogue.

Coleman's starship

Doctor Arthur Coleman was removed as chief medical officer of this ship for "administrative incompetence" and "flagrant medical blunders". In 2269, Leonard McCoy mentioned this fact to "James T. Kirk" while explaining why he felt "Janice Lester" should not have been placed in Coleman's care rather than his. (TOS: "Turnabout Intruder")

This starship was only mentioned in dialogue.

Garth's starship(s)

Fleet Captain Garth of Izar was a starship commanding officer in the mid 23rd century. His starship was involved in many important historical actions. (TOS: "Whom Gods Destroy")

Garth's ship (or ships) were never identified by name or design, but it was referenced that he was in command of some type of vessel on multiple occasions. It is not known how many ships he commanded, as he might have commanded a different vessel in each event.

Garth commanded his vessel to victory at Axanar some time prior to James Kirk's completion of Starfleet Academy. While Garth was a military hero at Axanar, Cadet Kirk was given the Palm Leaf of Axanar Peace Mission. (TOS: "Court Martial")

The Four Years War, an RPG reference book published by FASA, identified Garth's ship at this time as the USS Xenophon (β), a Marklin-class (β) destroyer.

Garth ordered his starship's crew to destroy a sovereign, populated planet. They refused his order, and he was institutionalized at Elba II.

Since this event would seem to be more than a decade after Axanar, it is not known if Garth would have been on a different ship at this point. The novel Garth of Izar identified Garth's ship as the USS Heisenberg (β), and states the ship's first and second officer were vaporized with a phaser by Garth before he was subdued.

Scott's ships

Over the course of his fifty-one year career, Captain Montgomery Scott had served aboard both USS Enterprise and USS Enterprise-A, in addition to nine other freighters, cruisers, and starships. (TNG: "Relics")

As well, he served as an engineering advisor on a freighting-line vessel on "a couple" trips from Deneva to the system's outer asteroid belt. (TOS: "Operation -- Annihilate!")

This ships was only mentioned in dialogue.

Taylor's science vessel

In 2286, Doctor Gillian Taylor, a transplanted 20th century whale biologist, was assigned to this science vessel shortly after her arrival to the 23rd century, in order to "catch-up on the past three hundred years". (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home)

This science vessel was only mentioned in dialogue.

Wesley's ships

As the cosmic cloud approached the Federation colony Mantilles, Governor Bob Wesley ordered the evacuation of the place's children, who subsequently boarded these ships. These ships departed from the planet as the cloud approached. Upon the conclusion of an agreement between the cloud and the crew of the USS Enterprise, where it was agreed the cloud would not consume the planet, the ships were recalled. (TAS: "One of Our Planets Is Missing")

These ships were only mentioned in dialogue.

Winston's trading vessel

By mission

Altair VI inauguration ceremony

These two starships, along with the USS Enterprise, were expected to attend the inauguration ceremony for Altair VI's new president in 2267. (TOS: "Amok Time")

These two starships were only mentioned in dialogue.
According to the 29 May 1967 draft of the script, these two vessels were identified as the Excalibur and Endeavor.

Argus X survey vessel

In 2268, Captain Kirk of the USS Enterprise recommended to Starfleet to dispatch a survey vessel to Argus X due to its rich tritanium deposits. (TOS: "Obsession")

This survey vessel was only mentioned in dialogue.

Beta Capricus expedition

In 2210, this starship participated in mission to Beta Capricus, under the command of Harry Kim's "uncle" Jack. The long range deep-space exploration vessel was designed to be operated by a single pilot while the rest of the crew was held in stasis.

After departing Earth's orbit their starship took six months to reach its destination. Unfortunately, unbeknownst to Earth researchers, there was no star at Beta Capricus. What was believed to be a star was in fact just an electromagnetic echo of a distant galaxy.

Left with little alternative, Jack was forced to turn the ship around and make the trip all the way back to Earth, deciding not to wake the crew. Upon the vessel's return from its year long voyage, the wakened crew was confused that they had apparently not yet left orbit. (VOY: "11:59")

This starship was only mentioned in dialogue.
This was the second reference made to post-21st century starship's employing stasis technology for crew's traveling distant voyages. Previously in "The Thaw", Captain Kathryn Janeway had indicated that "years ago, Starfleet used a technology to assist deep space travel that kept the body in stasis, but provided a mental landscape to keep the mind active and alert."

Corvan II relief

In 2256, this starship was 84 hours away from Corvan II at the time the colony was attacked by Klingon Bird-of-Preys. (DIS: "The Butcher's Knife Cares Not for the Lamb's Cry")

This starship was only mentioned in dialogue.

Earth Spacedock ship

Docked at Spacedock

This starship was docked in Earth Spacedock, along with the USS Excelsior, when the USS Enterprise returned home following the Battle of the Mutara Nebula in 2285. (Star Trek III: The Search for Spock)

This studio model, which was something of a variant to the B-24-CLN type design, was first created in 1977 as a study model for Star Trek: Planet of the Titans.

Gamma Trianguli VI scout ship

In 2267, this scout ship reported some "pretty strange" sensor readings from Gamma Trianguli VI to Starfleet Command. In response to the finding, Command ordered the USS Enterprise to the planet. (TOS: "The Apple")

This scout ship was only mentioned in dialogue.

Ingraham B vessel

Eight months prior to the USS Enterprise's stopover at Deneva colony, the infestation with flying parasites began when a vessel from Ingraham B was diverted to Deneva by the crew of the ship, who were under the control of the parasites at the time. (TOS: "Operation -- Annihilate!")

This starship was only mentioned in dialogue.

Quartet of starships

These four Starfleet starships visited an orbiting dock station when there was a briefing about the activities of the USS Discovery on board the station in the Federation-Klingon War of 2256. (DIS: "Choose Your Pain")

Research vessel investigating red bursts

After USS Discovery was led to an interstellar asteroid by a red burst, this research vessel was detailed to scan for subspace readings. The findings were unexpected, as for a brief window, the signal appeared to have left behind a trail of tachyon radiation. (DIS: "Saints of Imperfection")

In "Light and Shadows", the same readings were referred to as being conducted by "Admiral Cornwell's team".

Section 31 vessels

Sherman's Planet freighter

After it was discovered that a shipment of quadrotriticale had been poisoned on Deep Space Station K-7, Starfleet diverted this freighter, with its cargo of the grain, to Sherman's Planet. (TOS: "The Trouble with Tribbles")

Ships towing Enterprise

Two tow ships

These two Federation tugs were towing the badly damaged USS Enterprise to spacedock for repairs in 2257. (DIS: "Brother")

Starbase 1 docked starships

Starships at Starbase 1

In the alternate reality in 2258, nine starships docked at Starbase 1, along with the USS Enterprise and USS Armstrong, prepared to respond to a distress call from Vulcan. Those ships included three Mayflower-type starships and two Newton-type starships. (Star Trek).

In addition to the Enterprise and Armstrong, the USS Antares, USS Farragut, USS Hood, USS Mayflower, USS Newton, USS Odyssey, USS Truman, and USS Wolcott were present but not identified.

Tarsus IV supply ships

In 2246, these supply ships were responsible for saving the colony on Tarsus IV. They were earlier than expected in saving the colony, but were too late to save the 4,000 people Kodos had murdered in his attempt to save the colony from starvation. (TOS: "The Conscience of the King")

Taurean system transport

This ship, with an all-women crew, picked up the female members of Theela's species from the second planet in the Taurean system and transported them to a suitable planet. (TAS: "The Lorelei Signal")

This ship was only mentioned in dialogue.

Yorktown docked starships

In the alternate reality of 2263, two starships were present at Starbase Yorktown shipyard when the USS Enterprise-A was being constructed. The first was entering the shipyard, while the second was docked. (Star Trek Beyond)

The first ship was briefly seen in the montage, passing from left to right behind the Enterprise-A.
The second ship was briefly seen in the background, behind the Enterprise-A.
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