Vilmor II was the uninhabited second planet in the Vilmoran system. This planet was located outside Federation territory.

4.5 billion years ago, the ancient humanoids seeded part of a genetic program there, but the planet was almost devoid of life as of the 24th century, as its oceans dried up. Only one pocket of life remained: a primitive lichen growing in a fossilized seabed. A DNA sample from Vilmor II was the last fragment required to decipher the code programmed by the ancient humanoids. The Federation, Romulans, Cardassians, and Klingons traveled to Vilmor II in 2369 to obtain the DNA.

A standoff over the sample ensued, which was resolved when Dr. Beverly Crusher completed the program using partially fossilized organic material from the seabed. A message by the ancient humanoids played, revealing that all humanoid species of the galaxy have a common genetic heritage. After this revelation, the USS Enterprise-D stayed in orbit of Vilmor II for a period of time to conduct repairs on the warp engines. (TNG: "The Chase")

The planet's name was not mentioned in the episode. Instead, the name came from and the Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 2, p. 459).