The visual cortex was a part of the cerebral cortex, which was a part of the brain.

When Romulans brainwashed Geordi La Forge in 2367, they connected him to a device that could send images directly to his visual cortex, thereby making it impossible for La Forge to look away. (TNG: "The Mind's Eye")

In 2369, tampering by solanogen-based lifeforms caused elevated levels of serotonin to concentrate in the visual cortex and hippocampus of several crewmembers of the USS Enterprise-D. Doctor Beverly Crusher realized that this was caused by a neuro-sedative used by the aliens to sedate the victims they experimented on. (TNG: "Schisms")

The same year, Doctor Julian Bashir performed a neural imaging scan to stimulate Chief O'Brien's visual cortex. (DS9: "Babel")

Soon after, Ty Kajada asked Bashir to run a retinal imaging scan on Rao Vantika's corpse to confirm there was no residual activity in the Kobliad's visual cortex. (DS9: "The Passenger")

In 2375, the Borg Queen re-enhanced Seven of Nine's visual cortex with Borg technology with the addition of a neuro-processing adjunct. (VOY: "Dark Frontier")

The same year, The Doctor found that a number of the ganglia in Chakotay's visual cortex were hyperactive after a boxing simulation on the holodeck. This was due to the link between his mind and alien beings that lived in chaotic space. (VOY: "The Fight")

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