A witness, or eyewitness, was an individual who was prepared to testify in court in a trial about an incident they observed or possessed knowledge about.

A character witness was someone who could affirm certain details about one's character. In 2266, James T. Kirk offered to testify at Harry Mudd's trial as a character witness in lieu of leaving him behind on Rigel XII. Mudd was of the opinion that if Kirk did, they'd "throw away the key." (TOS: "Mudd's Women")

That year, the USS Enterprise computer began to list nine eyewitnesses who could identify Kodos the Executioner, but only got up to five before Kirk interrupted it: himself, Thomas Leighton, E. Molson, Kevin Riley and D. Eames. All were dead by that point except Kirk and Riley. (TOS: "The Conscience of the King")

In 2270, Kol-Tai was a defense witness to Doctor Leonard McCoy's actions during the mass-inoculation program on Dramia II. (TAS: "Albatross")

An expert witness was someone who had intimate knowledge of a field or subject pertinent to a trial. In 2372, Benjamin Sisko asked Advocate Ch'Pok to testify at Worf's extradition hearing as an expert witness on the Klingon Empire. (DS9: "Rules of Engagement")

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